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USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI)

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USGS Professional Paper 1651 (2007)

Professional Paper 1651 cover

Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

Edited by S.E. Church, P. von Guerard, and S.E. Finger, 2007, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1096 p., 6 plates, 1 DVD. Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1651/.

List of Chapters

  • U.S. Geological Survey, 2007, Summary and conclusions from investigation of the effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, Chapter A in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 1-16.
  • von Guerard, P., Church, S.E., Yager, D.B., and Besser, J.M., 2007, The Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, Chapter B in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 17-38.
  • Jones, W.R., 2007, History of mining and milling practices and production in San Juan County, Colorado, 1871–1991, Chapter C in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 39-86.
  • Besser, J.M., Finger, S.E., and Church, S.E., 2007, Impacts of historical mining on aquatic ecosystems—An ecological risk assessment, Chapter D in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 87-106.
  • Yager, D.B., and Bove, D.J., 2007, Geologic framework, Chapter E1 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 107-140.
  • Dalton, J.B., Bove, D.J., Mladinich, C.S., and Rockwell, B.W., 2007, Imaging spectroscopy applied to the Animas River watershed and Silverton caldera, Chapter E2 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 141-159.
  • Bove, D.J., Mast, M.A., Dalton, J.B., Wright, W.G., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Major styles of mineralization and hydrothermal alteration and related solid- and aqueous-phase geochemical signatures, Chapter E3 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 161-230.
  • Smith, B.D., McDougal, R.R., Deszcz-Pan, M., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys, Chapter E4 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 231-254.
  • Church, S.E., Mast, M.A., Martin, E.P., and Rich, C.L., 2007, Mine inventory and compilation of mine-adit chemistry data, Chapter E5 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 255-310.
  • Nash, J.T., and Fey, D.L., 2007, Mine adits, mine-waste dumps, and mill tailings as sources of contamination, Chapter E6 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 311-345.
  • Mast, M.A., Verplanck, P.L., Wright, W.G., and Bove, D.J., 2007, Characterization of background water quality, Chapter E7 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 347-386.
  • Nordstrom, D.K., Wright, W.G., Mast, M.A., Bove, D.J., and Rye, R.O., 2007, Aqueous-sulfate stable isotopes—A study of mining-affected and undisturbed acidic drainage, Chapter E8 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 387-416.
  • Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, and Runkel, R.L., 2007, Quantification of metal loading by tracer injection and synoptic sampling, 1996–2000, Chapter E9 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 417-495.
  • Wright, W.G., Simon, W., Bove, D.J., Mast, M.A., and Leib, K.J., 2007, Distribution of pH values and dissolved trace-metal concentrations in streams, Chapter E10 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 497-541.
  • Leib, K.J., Mast, M.A., and Wright, W.G., 2007, Characterization of mainstem streams using water-quality profiles, Chapter E11 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 543-570.
  • Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., and Unruh, D.M, 2007, Trace elements and lead isotopes in modern streambed and terrace sediment—Determination of current and premining geochemical baselines, Chapter E12 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 571-642.
  • McDougal, R.R., McCafferty, A.E., Smith, B.D., and Yager, D.B., 2007, Topographic, geophysical, and mineralogical characterization of geologic structures using a statistical modeling approach , Chapter E13 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 643-687.
  • Stanton, M.R., Yager, D.B., Fey D.L., and Wright, W.G., 2007, Formation and geochemical significance of iron bog deposits, Chapter E14 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 689-720.
  • Verplanck, P.L., Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., and Stanton, M.R., 2007, Ferricrete classification, morphology, distribution, and carbon-14 age constraints, Chapter E15 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 721-744.
  • Vincent, K.R., Church, S.E., and Wirt, L., 2007, Geomorphology of Cement Creek and its relation to ferricrete deposits, Chapter E16 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 745-773.
  • Wirt, L., Vincent, K.R., Verplanck, P.L., Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., and Fey, D.L., 2007, Geochemical and hydrologic processes controlling formation of ferricrete, Chapter E17 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 775-822.
  • Besser, J.M., and Brumbaugh, W.G., 2007, Status of stream biotic communities in relation to metal exposure, Chapter E18 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 823-835.
  • Besser, J.M., and Leib, K.J., 2007, Toxicity of metals in water and sediment to aquatic biota, Chapter E19 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 837-849.
  • Anderson, C.R., 2007, Effects of mining on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and monitoring strategy, Chapter E20 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 851-872.
  • Milhous, R.T., 2007, Application of physical habitat simulation in the evaluation of physical habitat suitability, Chapter E21 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 873-888.
  • Vincent, K.R., and Elliott, J.G., 2007, Response of the upper Animas River downstream from Eureka to discharge of mill tailings, Chapter E22 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 889-941.
  • Wright, W.G., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2007, Effects of the May Day mine site on stream-water quality in the Cement Creek basin, August 2000, Chapter E23 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 943-972.
  • Walton-Day, K., Paschke, S.S., Runkel, R.L. and Kimball, B.A., 2007, Using the OTIS solute-transport model to evaluate remediation scenarios in Cement Creek and the upper Animas River, Chapter E24 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 973-1028.
  • Stanton, M.R., Fey, D.L., Church, S.E., and Holmes, C.W., 2007, Processes affecting the geochemical composition of wetland sediment, Chapter E25 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 1029-1064.
  • Finger, S.E., Church, S.E., and von Guerard, P., 2007, Potential for successful ecological restoration, remediation, and monitoring, Chapter F in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 1065-1078.
  • Sole, T.C., Granitto, M., Rich, C.L., Litke, D.W., and Pelltier, R.T., 2007, Digital databases and CD-ROM for the Animas River watershed, Chapter G in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, p. 1079-1096.

List of Plates

  • Plate 1. Generalized geologic map of part of the Animas River watershed and vicinity, Silverton, Colorado. Compiled by D.B. Yager and D.J. Bove, Chapter E1.
  • Plate 2. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in part of the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, By D.B. Yager, S.E. Church, P.L. Verplanck, and Laurie Wirt, Chapter E1.
  • Plate 3. Total-field magnetic map of the Animas River watershed study area, Colorado, Compiled by B.D. Smith, R.R. McDougal, Maryla Deszcz-Pan, and D.B. Yager, Chapter E4.
  • Plate 4. Apparent conductivity map of the Animas River watershed study area, Colorado, Compiled by B.D. Smith, R.R. McDougal, Maryla Deszcz-Pan, and D.B. Yager, Chapter E4.
  • Plate 5. Surficial geologic deposits along Cement Creek, upstream of Silverton, Colorado, by K. R. Vincent, S.E. Church, and Laurie Wirt, Chapter E16.
  • Plate 6. Stratigraphy of late Holocene channel and flood-plain deposits exposed in a trench excavated across the Animas River valley floor 1.4 kilometers downstream of the Eureka townsite, San Juan County, Colorado, by K.R. Vincent and J.G. Elliott, Chapter E22.

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Published Reports

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Published Abstracts

Red Mountains near Silverton, Colorado.
Red Mountains #1 through #3, viewed left to right looking east from the USDA Forest Service information stop near Red Mountain Pass, Colorado, September 2003. The colors of these red mountains illustrate the extent of alteration within the Silverton caldera that is responsible for the ore deposits and that also affects the water quality of streams. (Briant A. Kimball, USGS).

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Data

USGS has created and collected various cartographic, geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological data sets that are part of a GIS database. The digital data is available online. Illustrations of some of the data sets are listed below.

Example data image showing watershed boundary.

Shaded relief image and upper Animas River watershed boundary.

Example data image with rivers and streams shown.

Shaded relief image and upper Animas River watershed boundary. Rivers and streams are shown in blue.

Example data image with mine-related sites marked.

Shaded relief image and upper Animas River watershed boundary. Mine-related sites are marked in pink circles. Rivers and streams are in blue.

Note: Images are intended for illustrative purposes only. Tabular attributes in the data sets may not be represented in these images.

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Pictures

Prospect Gulch, Cement Creek
Prospect Gulch, Cement Creek. Photo courtesy of Barbara Hite.
Stream sampling in the Upper Animas River, mixing zone downstream from Cement Creek.
Stream sampling in the Upper Animas River, the mixing zone downstream from Cement Creek. Photo credit: Briant Kimball, USGS.
Rock deposits and mine-waste piles near Silverton, Colorado
Mining and non-mining sources of metals and acid water near Silverton, Colorado. Photo credit: Briant Kimball, USGS.
Forest Queen, Upper Animas
Forest Queen, Upper Animas. Photo courtesy of Barbara Hite.
Metal-rich drainage from mill site near Silverton, Colorado.
Metal-rich drainage from the old Howardsville mill site, near Silverton, Colorado. Photo credit: Briant Kimball, USGS.

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